Thursday, March 12, 2020
Child labour Essay Example Child labour Essay Child labour Essay A report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement of Business Communication and Ethics: Report Writing 2014 October I PREFACE It is clear that the practice of child labor in the society would deprive the child of his basic human rights; his right to education and learning; his right to entertainment ND interact with peers as also his right to enjoy the beauty of the world around him and to develop a rounded personality. The children drawn to the labor force are not themselves choosing to work at such an early age. They are rather compelled to Join the labor force against their will by certain familial and social circumstances. The circumstances which bring the minor children to work in the labor force can be characterized as socioeconomic compulsion such as poverty, unemployment of the adult family members etc. The present study has been conducted in the urban localities of Iambi. The study focuses mainly on the factors, which compel the children to adopt occupational roles at a tender age. This study is based on primary data collected from our volunteers. The study contains six chapters. Poverty coupled with rapidly growing population, ignorance and increasing dependency load are behind the grim incidence of children employment in the villages and towns of developing countries. Though India is signatory of various international Conventions and Agreements, there is growing number of child labor in India. They work under very hazardous conditions. Given the magnitude and complexity of the problem, this article is an attempt to formulate integrated approach and various intervention strategies towards eradication of the problem of child labor. Child labor is an integral part of labor force, especially in poor countries. These children are the most deprived section of population forced to enter labor market at tender age to earn a pittance or to contribute to family work, sacrificing personal development. Poverty coupled with rapidly growing population, ignorance and increasing dependency load are behind the grim incidence of children employment in the villages and towns of evolving countries. The exploitative structure, lopsided development, iniquitous resource ownership with its correlation of large scale unemployment and abject poverty have contributed towards increasing child labor among the countries. Child labor hampers the normal physical, intellectual, emotional and moral development of a child. Children who are in the growing process can permanently distort or disable their bodies when they carry heavy loads or are forced to adopt unnatural positions at work for long hours. Children are the greatest gift to humanity and Childhood is an important and impressionable stage of human development as it holds the potential to the future development of any society. Children who are brought up in an environment, which is conducive to their intellectual, physical and social health, grow up to be responsible and productive members of society. Every nation links its future with the present status of its children. By performing work when they are too young for the task, children unduly reduce their present welfare or their future income earning capabilities, either by shrinking their future external choice sets or by reducing their own future individual productive capabilities. Under extreme economic distress, children are forced to forego educational opportunities and take up Jobs which are mostly exploitative as they are usually underpaid and engaged in hazardous conditions. Parents decide to send their child for engaging in a Job as a desperate measure due to poor economic conditions. It is therefore no wonder that the poor households predominantly send their children to work in early ages of their life. One of the disconcerting aspects of child labor is that children are sent to work at the expense of education. There is a strong effect of child labor on school attendance attest and the length of a childs work day is negatively associated with his or her capacity to attend school. Child labor restricts the right of children to access and benefit from education and denies the fundamental opportunity to attend school. Child labor, thus, prejudices childrens education and adversely affects their health and safety. India has all along followed a proactive policy in addressing the problem of child labor and has always stood for constitutional, statutory and developmental measures that are required to eliminate child labor. The Constitution of India has relevant provisions to secure compulsory universal primary education. Labor Commissions and Committees have gone into the problems of child labor and made extensive recommendations. Indians Judiciary, right up to the apex level, has demonstrated profoundly empathetic responses against the practice of child labor. 1. 1 DEFINITION 6 Child labor refers to the employment of children in any work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, and that is mentally, physically, socially or morally dangerous and harmful. The term child labor is often defined as work that deprives children of their childhood, their attention and their dignity, and that is harmful to physical and mental development. It refers to work that: is mentally, physically, socially or morally dangerous and harmful to children; and interferes with their schooling by: depriving them of the opportunity to attend school; obliging them to leave school prematurely; or Requiring them to attempt to combine school attendance with excessively long and heavy work. Child labor involves at least one of the following characteristics: Violates a nations minimum age laws Threatens childrens physical, mental, or emotional well-being Involves intolerable buses, such as child slavery, child trafficking, debt bondage, forced labor, or illicit activities Prevents children from going to school Uses children to undermine labor standards The phrase child labor conjures images of children chained into factories, sold as slaves, or forced into prostitution. 7 1. 2 History Child labor in some form or the other has always existed in societies all over the world. Children used to accompany their parents while working in the fields. Moreover they were also expected to help with household chores as well as taking care of the sick and elderly. As most of the work was being done under the watchful yes of the parents, instances of exploitation were rare. Even today work of this sort is not considered exploitative. The worst forms of the exploitation of children started during the Industrial Revolution. It was at this time that machinery took over many functions formerly performed by hand and was centralized in large factories. There was a large scale structural shift in employment patterns. Many artisans lost their jobs and were forced to work in these factories. But the owners of these factories realized that operating many of these machines did not require adult strength, and hillier could be hired much more cheaply than adults. Children had always worked, especially in farming. But factory work was hard. A child with a factory Job might work 12 to 18 hours a day, six days a week, to earn a dollar. Many children began working before the age of 7, tending machines in spinning mills or hauling heavy loads. The factories were often damp, dark, and dirty. Some children worked underground, in coal mines. The working children had no time to play or go to school, and little time to rest. They often became ill. Many of the Jobs that these children specialized in were very dangerous. E. G. The youngest children in the textile factories were usually employed as scavengers and pieces. Scavengers had to pick up the loose cotton from under the machinery. This was extremely dangerous as the children were expected to carry out the task while the machine was still working. While the pieces had the Job of fixing broken threads. It is estimated that these pieces walked almost 20 miles in a single day. Another barbaric practice followed in Victorian times was the use of children as chimney sweeps. Children were also employed to work in coal mines to crawl through tunnels too narrow and low for adults. They also worked as rand boys, crossing sweepers, shoe blacks, or selling matches, flowers and other cheap goods. Some children undertook work as apprentices to respectable trades, such as building or as domestic servants. By 1810 about 2,000,000 children were working 50 to 70 hours a week. About 2/3rd of the total workers in the textile industry were children. Church and labor groups, teachers, and many other people were outraged by such cruelty. They began to press for reforms. The English writer Charles Dickens helped publicize the evils of child labor with his novel Oliver Twist. Two Factory Acts were implemented in 1802 and 1809. Both these acts set limits on the maximum number of hours that a child was allowed to work in a day. But the implementation of these laws was lax and it had very little effect. Non the United States it took many years to outlaw child labor. Connecticut passed a law in 1813 saying that working children must have some schooling. By 1899 a total of 28 states had passed laws regulating child labor. Today all the states and the U. S. Government have laws regulating child labor. These laws have cured the worst evils of childrens working in factories. But some kinds of work are not regulated. Children of migrant errors, for example, have no legal protection. Farmers may legally employ them outside of school hours. The children pick crops in the fields and move from place to place, so they get little schooling. Len India child labor has always existed in the agricultural sector. Children and their parents used to work together in the farms. Moreover the task of taking the cattle to graze was always allotted to children. Although this work was hard and tiring, it did not lead to a worsening of their future prospects. Schooling was not available in most villages and most of the Jobs were still in the agricultural sector. So this work served as training for their future. Large scale exploitation of children in India began with the arrival of the British. Just as the case was in Great Britain, the new industrialists started hiring children who were forced to work in inhuman conditions. Laws against child labor were passed under Employment of Children Act of 1938. These attempts at legislation failed as they failed to address the root cause of child labor in India: poverty. Until and unless the populace was brought out of poverty, it was impossible to take the children out of the labor force. 10 2. CHILD TRAFFICKING Child trafficking, according to EUNICE is defined as any person under 18 who is recruited, transported, transferred, harbored or received for the purpose of exploitation, either within or outside a country. [l] There have been many cases where children Just disappear overnight, as many as one every eight minutes, according to the National Crime Records Bureau. Children are taken from their homes to be bought and sold in the market. In India, there is a large number of children trafficked for various reasons such as labor, begging, and sexual exploitation. Because of the nature of this crime; it is hard to track; therefore making t impossible to have exact figures regarding this issue. India is a prime area for child trafficking to occur, as many of those trafficked are from, travel through or destined to go to India. Though most of the trafficking occurs within the country, there is also a significant nonbelligerent trafficked from Nepal and Bangladesh. Legally, children in India are allowed to do light work, but they are often trafficked for bonded labor, and domestic work, and are worked far beyond what is allowed in the country. They are often forced to work, in the use of contraptions that bound them to be unable to escape and then forced to submit to control. Others may be bound by abuse whether physical, emotional, or sexual. Those forced into labor lose all freedom, being thrown into the workforce, essentially becoming slaves, and losing their childhood. Children, over adults are often chosen to be trafficked for illegal activities such as begging and organ trade, as they are seen as more vulnerable. Not only are these children being forced to beg for money, but a significant number of those on the streets have had limbs forcibly amputated, or even acid poured into their eyes to blind them by gang masters. Those who are injured tend to make more money, which is why they are often abused in this way.  Organ trade is also common, when traffickers trick or force children to give up an organ. 1 Poverty in India can be defined as a situation when a certain section of people are unable to fulfill their basic needs. India has the worlds largest number of poor people living in a single country. Extreme poverty, lack of opportunity for gainful employment and intermittent of income and low standards of living are the main reasons for the wide prevalence of child labor. Though it is possible to identify child Barbour in the organized sector, which form a minuscule of the total child labor, the problem relates mainly to the unrecognized sector where utmost attention needs to be paid. The problem is universal but in our case it is more crucial. Poor people have very less or no income because of which they use their children as the source of income by making them to work instead of sending them school. The children below 14 years who work instead of going school are considered as child laborers. Significant logic behind the psychology of poor people for more births is as many children are there that many are the child labor income sources for them. With many children all will get two times meal at least when all go for the work or beg. However, with less (one or two) that may not be possible. In this view, poor people go for more children. They think that their children will either work or beg to feed themselves as well as to their parents at the time when they get old. The poverty, illiteracy and old age dependency are considered as the main reasons for production of Child Labor. In India 14. 4 % children between 10 to 14 years of age are employed in child labor. Children under fourteen constitute around 3. 6% of the total labor force in India. 5 Of Hess children nine out of every ten work in their own rural family settings. Nearly 85% are engaged in traditional agricultural activities. Less than 9% work in manufacturing, service and repairs. Only about 0. 8 work in factories. Child labor in India is a serious problem and a human right issue for the whole world. Quiet a high number of children below poverty line are working in sweet shops, cycle repair shops as helpers and waiters in hotels and restaurants, glass blowing units and carpet making factories. The 2001 national census of India estimated the total number of child labor, aged 5-14, to be at 12. Million. Worldwide, about 215 million children work as child labor, many full times. Industries pay very low wages to child laborers and make them work for long hours in unhygienic conditions. Extreme poverty that exists due to poverty and illiteracy is the main cause of child labor and over and above, psychology of poor people to depend on earnings of their children for their survival Child labor and poverty are inevitably bound together and if you continue to use the labor of children as the treatment for the social disease of poverty, you will have both poverty and child labor to the end of time. 4. Illiteracy and Child Labor Child labor is one of the worst effects of illiteracy. This social stigma has stolen away the childhood of millions of children! The child labor trade is NOT something that can be stopped by a mere change in government because it is the lack of knowledge, rather than the lack of political freedom, that causes children to become laborers. India is the largest democracy in the world. Unfortunately however, India is also home for the largest number of child-laborers in the world. Some 24 million children work more hours each day than the number of their age. The child who becomes a laborer is often end up at abusive work places because they are defenseless and do not say no to an obnoxious master. More accurately, child laborers do not know if they have any rights, including the right to ask for their wages. The grievances of child laborers are muted by their biggest weakness; illiteracy. The burden of life is already on their shoulders. Illiteracy and child labor feed off each other. Parents illiteracy limits their earning potential, causing their children to work to supplement their families incomes. 13 5. Overpopulation and child labor If a country is over populated then child labor is a regular problem to deal with. South Asian countries like Bangladesh are the best example to give in this regard. Over population creates unemployment and the ultimate result is poverty. As I have told before that poverty is one of the main reasons of child labor. Now amusingly its not always true that excess of population create child worker. Because if a country has enough resources and Job opportunities to feed the mouth of all then poverty issue should not bear any importance. But if the resources and Job opportunities are emitted then to feed the excess population cheap source of labor like children can be employed in different forms of work. 14 6. National Legislation and Policies against Child Labor in India The Constitution of India (26 January 1950), through various articles enshrined in the Fundamental Rights and the Directive Principles of State Policy, lays down that: No child below the age of 14 years shall be employed to work in any factory or mine or engaged in any other hazardous employment (Article 24); The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age six to 14 years. Article 21 (A)); The State shall direct its policy towards securing that the health and strength of workers, men and women and the tender age of children are not abused and that they are not forced by economic necessity to enter vocations unsuited to their age and strength (Article 39-e); Children shall be given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth shall be protected against moral and material abandonment (Article 39-f); The State shall endeavor to provide within a period of 10 years from the commencement of the Constitution for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of 14 years (Article 45). Child labor is a matter on which both the Union Government and state governments can legislate. A number of legislative initiatives have been undertaken at both levels. The major national legislative developments include the following: The Child Labor (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986: The Act prohibits the employment of children below the age of 14 years in 16 occupations and 65 processes that are hazardous to the childrens lives and health. These occupations and processes are listed in the Schedule to the Act. In October 2006, the Government has included children working in the domestic sector as well as roadside eateries and motels under the prohibited list of hazardous occupations. More recently, in September 2008 diving as well as process involving excessive heat (e. G. Irking near a furnace) and cold; mechanical fishing; food processing; beverage industry; timber handling and loading; mechanical lumbering; warehousing; and processes involving exposure to free silica such as slate, pencil industry, stone ringing, slate stone mining, stone quarries as well as the agate industry were added to the list of prohibited occupations and processes; The Factories Act, 1948: The Act prohibits the employment of children below the age of 14 years. An adolescent aged between 15 and 18 years can be employed in a factory only if he obtains a certificate of fitness from an authorized medical doctor. The Act also prescribes four and a half hours of work per day for children aged between 14 and 18 years and prohibits their working during night hours. The Mines Act, 1952: The Act prohibits the employment f children below 18 years of age in a mine. Further, it states that apprentices above 16 may be allowed to work under proper supervision in a mine. 5 The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection) of Children Act, 2000: This Act was last amended in 2002 in conformity with the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child covers young persons below 18 years of age. Section 26 of this Act deals with the Exploitation of a Juvenile or Child Employee, and provides in relevant part, that whoever procures a Juvenile or the child for the purpose of any hazardous employment and keeps him in bondage and withholds his earnings or uses such raring for hi s own purposes shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to three years and shall also be liable for fine. In some States, including Karakas and Maharajahs, this provision has been used effectively to bring to book many child labor employers who are otherwise not covered by any other law and to give relief and rehabilitation benefits to a large number of children. The Minimum Wages Act, 1948: Prescribes minimum wages for all employees I n all establishments or to those working at home in certain sectors specified in the schedule of the Act. Central and State Governments can revise minimum wages specified in the schedule. Some consider this Act as an effective instrument to combat child labor in that it is being used in some States (such as Andorra Pradesh) as the basis on which to prosecute employers who are employing children and paying those lower wages. The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009: Provides for free and compulsory education to all children aged 6 to 14 years. This legislation also envisages that 25 per cent of seats in every private school should be allocated for children from disadvantaged groups including differently bled children. 6 The fact that many people are unaware about child labor inspired us to take up this topic for the report. To start with the report, we delegated different topics amongst our fellow members, each choosing the topic of their interest. Everyone was asked to collect information pertaining to their topic and condense it in no more than three pages. Each one of us has gone through minor details regarding the researches, exploration and more aspects which are interesting too. We have searched the internet , gone through every article on encyclopedia related to the topic and have ride to keep our matter as short simple and precise as possible.
Tuesday, February 25, 2020
Study of The UK Food Manufacturing 2036 - Essay Example The paper has deployed a number of strategic management techniques to determine market condition, consumer demand and position of the companies thereof. SWOT, PEST and PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s five force analyses were considered appropriate. Besides business environment, financial and non-financial performance of each company has been assessed along with their cumulative performance for a period of five years. The paper has elaborately discussed every aspect of business with respect to the subject companies using ratio analysis. The outcomes have also been critically assessed and recommendations have been provided keeping in view the future scope of growth and development for the firms. The food sector in the United Kingdom (UK) can be chiefly segmented in four areas, namely, food manufacturing, food retailing, food wholesaling and non-residential catering. Food is an essential purchase among all others by consumers and growth of food sector is being significantly driven by increasing population. Between 1992 and 2008, the food sector of the UK grew parallel with economic boom and stabilised by 2012. The food manufacturing sector is significantly dominated by different kind of foods that can be conveniently categorised as necessity food and luxury food and be further subdivided into other categories (DEFRA, 2014a; Manley, 2010). The diversified nature of the UK food industry and its contribution in the UK economy makes it an interesting choice of research. The food manufacturing sector is an essential part of the food industry as it acts as a link between agro-food industry of raw material and food retailing and wholesaling. Food manufacturing is also essential for the food industry because it generate employment, provides export opportunities, minimises scope of import and results in great value addition to local produces and local crop producers (ILO, 2014). The research paper
Sunday, February 9, 2020
Legal Aspects of Healthcare Administration - Research Paper Example This study gathers information from state laws, codified statutes, case laws and regulatory laws. The source under consideration, hence, is credible by all means. The data and information used in it is valid. The sources includes details of Alcohol distribution laws, tax systems, legal principles on driving while intoxicated and Alcohol Sale and Purchase laws etc. This study analyzes data of the 40 states and provides legal implications of violating any laws. It gives an understanding of punishments and fines which are imposed in case of law violation. The state laws and policies are also discussed. The changes that occurred in the regulations over time are also discussed. For example, the lowered down blood alcohol concentration limits are discussed. The healthcare diseases and risks associated with excessive alcohol consumption require stricter laws and narrower space for legal alcohol use. The teenagers as well as adults are equally affected by the negative outcomes of alcohol consumption. Hence, in order to manage a stable healthcare system, there is a need to curb these issues. Legal proceedings and principles are a helpful tool in controlling the worsening situations that are observed in the recent years. This study hence, is a good source of information to understand the laws. Most of the legal principles, policies and laws are discuss ed efficiently in this study. The overview of the laws and the statistical data for the 40 states provide a better view on the effects of legal system as it relates to the overall health conditions in the United States. In my opinion, this source provides a good starting point to understand the impact of laws on law violators. This study provides a clear account of punishments and penalties for the law violators. Moreover, tax systems and fines are also explained. This source is undoubtedly helpful in understanding the law implications and principles. However, the weaknesses
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Descartes Free Will Essay In Meditations on First Philosophy Descartes attempts to explain the cause of errors in human beings. Descartes says that error occurs since the will extends further than the intellect (Descartes p. 39). Thats because our intellect is something that is finite; it is limited to the perception of only certain things. Whereas our will, ability to choose is not limited; it is has an infinite capacity. Therefore we sometimes attempt to will things which we do not have a complete understanding of. Descartes argument, as I will briefly describe, is quite sound, if you agree to all his conditions (being that the intellect is limited and the will infinite). I am not, as of yet, sure if I necessarily agree to the later of his two conditions. I will strive to evaluate different discernments of what will is, and if it is truly free. Then apply it to his argument. But first let me explain Descartes argument on the causation of errors. Descartes discussion begins in saying that errors depend on the simultaneous concurrence of two causes: the faculty of knowing that is in me and the faculty of choosing (Descartes p. 38). I will first tackle the faculty of knowing, or intellect. Descartes says that it merely perceives and understands ideas, which can later have judgment passed on them (see Descartes p. 38). The intellect is limited and finite because it can occur in different degrees. While some people have a simple understanding of a language others have a mastery of its grammar and syntax. But no one can have a mastery of all the mysteries of the universe. Then there is the faculty of choosing, as Descartes calls it, or rather the will. Descartes says that he experience[s] that it is limited by no boundaries whatever (Descartes p. 38). It is seen as infinite because unlike the intellect is does to adhere to different grades. It exists merely as a matter of being able to do or not to do something; to affirm or deny something proposed by ones intellect (see Descartes p. 38). In some cases ones will is unable to make such a decision, Descartes says, not because of a fault in the will but rather because the intellect is lacking complete knowledge of the situation (see Descartes p. 39). It is here that one should be indifferent to passing judgment. If in such a instance indifference is not the outcome an error is most likely to occur. Descartes says that this error will occur only when both work together because alone they cannot produce error. Thats because intellect, in and of itself, only perceives ideas which one knows and error would only occur if one tried to perceive ideas he did not know, which is impossible. The other, the will, in that it acts of itself, is only a utility of choice which alone cannot error. Therefore error and sin occur when both intellect and will work with each other. It is the disproportion between the limit of the will and the intellect that causes blunders. The will, as Ive stated, is a limitless aspect of ourselves and therefore can pass judgment on any proposition brought forth. But the intellect can only clearly perceive and understand very few propositions. As Descartes says it is where I extend it (the will) to things I do not understand (Descartes p. 39) that error is caused. Thats because one is, instead of acting indifferent, passing judgment on things that are not clear in the intellect. A person can easily then turn away from the good and truth given to our intellect by God and partake in sin and deceit (see Descartes p. 39). The finally area that Descartes adds is that in some instances a person can pass judgment on things that arent understood and not produce an error. In those cases the person has still acted in an incorrect manor, but it is just be chance that the correct choice, or judgment was made (see Descartes p. 40). It is here that I have concluded Descartes argument and will now attempt to seek answers to my own questions: If the will is in fact as free as Descartes speaks? If it is actually comparable to that of Gods? And if its ideal state is the same as that of practical use? The first aspect I would like to navigate through is the constraints placed on the ability to choose. One does not have the opportunity to choose freely in an organized society, community or institute. There seems to always be a restriction to the actual amount of choices one has. If Descartes was correct in his assumption of complete freedom of choice and will every option would be available to someone at any given time, in any given situation. But this is not necessarily the condition. There are a few different examples that one can view to comprehend this facet of my argument. Take for instance, perhaps an extreme but an occurrence none the less, people born of poverty do not have the ability to choose to acquire certain things. It is impossible simply by the fact that they do not have the means to get it. There is no choice of purchasing a fifty dollar object if all one has is twenty dollars. I feel though that perhaps Descartes was speaking of another free will, a non-materialistic aspect. Another example one can then try to explain is how in many middle eastern nations individuals are born into a society where one religion is forced upon them. They must live to follow this religion or risk outcast by the community or even death. In such a decision one does not have the opportunity to choose to not follow the religion because, although it may seem available, most choices against the norm bring with them an extreme consequences. Is there really a free will if one knows a consequence to be so evil, or heinous that they really have no choice but to go with the other option. On the other hand if Descartes was strictly speaking of free will in the sense of judgment and affirmation another option arises. One should have the ability to, in a sense, will something even if its not available to him. For example if a person has been convicted of a crime and is going to be sent to prison he can will that he doesnt have to go. Although here is seems that willing something is almost in a way the same as wishing it. But if it does follow that free will is only involved in passing judgment then a person can will whatever they want in their own mind, it doesnt mean necessarily that they will receive it. But one again this illustration is somewhat similar to my previous two, in that, if in actuality a choice will provide no outcome is the choice even there and if not its a limited faculty. The definition of limitless qualities that Descartes affiliates with the will is something that is questionable as well. Descartes, in a sense, contradicts himself when he says that he can see mans image and likeness to God in the ability to choose because both are infinite (see Descartes p. 38). But then says that the faculty of willing is incomparably greater in God than it is in me because of the power and knowledge God uses with it (ibid). So I ponder then if the ability to will cannot truly stand on its on, because by Descartes definition it passes certain judgment on something else, and that something in God is greater, how can one be equal to God. How can His infinite ability be greater than mans infinite ability. By definition there are no degrees of infinite, there is only finite or infinite, limited or limitless. In such a practical aspect I must appeal to my reason and then say that we cannot have an equal will to that of Gods. I say this because Gods willing can partake on any area of knowledge and have a boundless consequence over many things. Where as mans cannot. As I said, that was my practical deduction of our will in comparison to Gods. I was sure to state practical because I do feel there is a great difference between ones free will in a practical sense and an ideal sense. Actually in the practical sense I will be so bold as to say ones will is not free at all. All the examples I have given are practical uses of the will. And all of these examples seem limited for a number of reasons. As I already pointed out, I felt that the comparison between mans will and God will not be equal because in practice will cannot stand unaccompanied. That is why the will is not free or infinite in a realistic way because it never stands by itself. It relies on other faculties that, as Descartes even says, are limited which in turn make it limited. Therefore when people are faced with choices, like in my examples, not all the options are available because of a lack of knowledge or perhaps a constraint placed on someone from his society. If the will was able to stand alone I would agree that it is an infinite faculty but it doesnt. Hence I must also reason that the will Descartes speaks of is not the will that can be used in practice but rather it is an ideal will. In this ideal state people would be able to will anything they wanted, although they would most likely not receive it. In an ideal state I would have been able to will that I did not have to do this paper and not receive and F on it, but I very well know that would not have been possible. But the acting of willing alone would be free and infinite. I now must apply what I have learned to Descartes original argument of error. Since I have concluded that the ability to choose, or will that Descartes speaks of is ideal, this causation of error would also be ideal. Descartes said that when one should be acting indifferent to things and does not is when errors or correct choices by luck occur (see Descartes p. 39). Ideally this would be true, but in actuality many things lead to errors, and prevention of errors as well. Of course I do agree that in many cases mistakes are made because of people make judgments on things they have lack of knowledge of. But errors and sin can also occur when people have no other choice. For instance if a person is held at gun point and told to do something he may very well be passing a false judgment on something he has total knowledge of and in turn acting in error. From the other side of the argument Descartes says that to prevent himself from ever erring he must follow his feeling of indifference and stick with it instead of attempting to affirm or deny something (see Descartes p. 41). But I must also add to this argument that society does place constraints on things to prevent people from committing errors. Therefore it is not entirely internal. So I will conclude with saying that I have no choice but to say, from my reasoning, that in Meditation on First Philosophy Descartes speaks of a very ideal situation which would, in that state, hold true. But in the practical world ones perception cannot be so narrow because there are many facets that contribute to what we can do and why we can do them. Works Cited Descartes, Rene. (1993). Meditations on First Philosophy . translated by Donald A. Cress. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing Corp.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
Actions of Goneril in Shakespeare's King Lear Whenever the issue of power allocation arises, there usually emerge a few individuals who, given only a moderate amount of authority, overstep their bounds to exert more dominance than they rightfully own; such is the case with Goneril. Yet, although Goneril certainly errs in betraying the very father that bestowed a large dominion upon her, King Lear deserves much of the blame for Goneril's haughtiness. After grossly misinterpreting the reticence of his heretofore prized daughter Cordelia, Lear divides his kingdom between the mendacious Goneril and the scheming Regan, thereby leaving the fate of the land at their unskilled mercies. Naturally, Goneril relishes her newfound control, so when Lear comes to visit her with all of his knights in tow, she perceives him as encroaching upon the power that he has since relinquished. Additionally, Goneril notes (albeit in an exaggerated manner) the inconvenience that she incurs by housing these hundred men. Despite the outrage that one mig ht feel at the thought of a daughter mistreating h...
Monday, January 13, 2020
I intend to review Ã¢â¬Å"The Bush Doctrine and the Iraq War: Neoconservatives vs. RealistsÃ¢â¬ by Brian C. Schmidt and Michael C. Williams. The reason for choosing this article for review is simply because of its relevance today throughout the Middle East and how the American foreign policy is drastically changing the dynamics of the world. Schmidt and Williams use the elements of the neoconservative Bush Doctrine to show the direct contrast between realists and neoconservatives. The authors use the Bush Doctrine as an anchor to demonstrate realistsÃ¢â¬â¢ anti-war views as the Bush Doctrine Ã¢â¬Å"provided the key rationale for the Iraq War. This is the main theme of the paper and the authors express this throughout the paper in a fascinating, enthralling fashion. The previously supported neoconservative project has been fatally wounded through its invasion of Iraq. The Bush Doctrine does in fact Ã¢â¬Å"represent an abrupt and unprecedented shift in American foreign policy. Ã¢â ¬ The United States of America had been the most influential nation in the entire world (Ã¢â¬Å"land of opportunityÃ¢â¬ ), with its huge military force and dominate economic position, but with this doctrine came a wave of unexpected anti-Americanism.Schmidt and Williams make reference to Morgenthau and his struggles to Ã¢â¬Å"to convince American foreign policy officials of the dangers of conceptualizing the national interest in universalistic moral terms. Ã¢â¬ I agree with his mind-set that the Iraqi invasion was Ã¢â¬Å"national-suicideÃ¢â¬ and bruised the image of America worldwide. His vision that spreading democracy would result in disaster may have been pessimistic but was completely accurate. American realists were right from the offset; they believed that it was Ã¢â¬Å"unnecessary and counterproductive to invade Iraq. Ã¢â¬ And in hindsight they were extremely correct.However they failed to Ã¢â¬Å"steer America away from the road to war. Ã¢â¬ If all the eviden ce was weak, vague, and Ã¢â¬Å"baselessÃ¢â¬ , why did realists fail to persuade the public that the invasion would prove to be disastrous? This is what Schmidt and Williams set out to solve. One of the most chilling yet accurate quotes of the article is: Ã¢â¬Å"their wisdom only taking flight at duskÃ¢â¬âwhen most of the damage has already been done. Ã¢â¬ It was important to publish these ideas to demonstrate how gullible the American public (and even Congress) were in following the Bush administration to war and to ensure that this aggressive strategy is never repeated.It was also important to publish this article to illustrate the future implications of the Iraqi war on the U. S foreign policy. Schmidt and Williams use different methods throughout the article to reach their conclusions. They state and evaluate the arguments that realists adopted in order to defer America from invading Iraq. They also demonstrate the tactics used by neoconservatives to undermine and defeat realists in the lead up to the war in Iraq. The authors engage in these different methods to reach conclusions as to why realism ultimately failed in the Iraqi debate.The subjects in this article are visibly neoconservatives and realists. It is clear from this article that neoconservatives and realists share a very different outlook. One of the most accurate yet sombre quotes is: Ã¢â¬Å"As Mearsheimer sees it, realism quickly unravels the neoconservatives' faulty logic and explains the current reality of the Iraq situation. Ã¢â¬ This statement oppresses me as it was too late to materialize and fight against the decision to invade Iraq. The authors draw on John Ikenberry and his belief that terrorists Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬Å"cannot be deterred because they are either willing to die for their cause or able to escape retaliation. This is a brilliant quote used by Schmidt and Williams in this article as it shows the apparent ruthlessness of these Ã¢â¬ËterroristsÃ¢â¬â¢. They use elements o f the Bush Doctrine to demonstrate the tactics used by neoconservatives to persuade the American public towards supporting the invasion of Iraq. Drawing on these elements is a very intriguing technique and draws the reader in. The authors point out from the offset that the Bush Doctrines goal was for the United States Ã¢â¬Å"to preserve its hegemonic position for the indefinite future. Ã¢â¬ This is a brash statement demonstrates neoconservativeÃ¢â¬â¢s belief in a unipolar America.By referring to the Bush Doctrine in this article the authors demonstrate the idealistic notions of neoconservatives and their belief that America Ã¢â¬Å"leadership as a prerequisite for an orderly and peaceful world. Ã¢â¬ The authors use a brilliant quote to depict the neoconservatives ultimately naive and unipolar view that Ã¢â¬Ëone-size fits allÃ¢â¬â¢: Ã¢â¬Å"American hegemony is the only reliable defence against a breakdown of peace and international order. Ã¢â¬ The authors cleverly repro duce a metaphor used by Mearsheimer: Ã¢â¬Å"Wilsonism with teethÃ¢â¬ which brilliantly depicts neoconservativesÃ¢â¬â¢ absolute belief in unilateralism and America being the sole superpower.It captured my attention as a reader drawing me in to the article. Schmidt and Williams make reference to WaltÃ¢â¬â¢s argument: Ã¢â¬Å"how can other states be comfortable and secure when U. S. decisions affect all of their interests, and when the United States is strong enough to act pretty much as it wishes? Ã¢â¬ This is a brilliant rhetoric question which draws the reader in. Through the use of rhetoric question the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s emphasis their point that the United States do in fact pose a huge threat to the rest of the world. The authors use impeccable language to express their point that neoconservative and realist views are in direct contrast.Alliteration (Ã¢â¬ËpÃ¢â¬â¢ repetition) is used in the following sentence which, in my opinion as a reader, draws the audience in becaus e of its dramatic and memorable effect: Ã¢â¬Å"Rather than a prescription for peace, as most realists maintain, neoconservatives view balance-of power politics as both unnecessary and a hindrance to achieving American national interests, while America's preeminent position in the world obviates the need for traditional balance-of-power diplomacy. Ã¢â¬ Schmidt and Williams state that realism Ã¢â¬Å"lacks any view beyond narrowly strategic material calculation, narrowly pragmatic judgment, or pluralist competition. I agree with this statement, realists to carry a very pessimistic, strategic view. This is not suitable in modern politics due to globalization. In my opinion the major weakness of the article is that Schmidt and Williams fail to give a solid resolution to the problem and how to restore AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s image abroad and how to improve the future of the US foreign policy. In the conclusion Schmidt and Williams ask the all-important question: Ã¢â¬Å"can realism make its an alytic positions politically powerful? Ã¢â¬ In my opinion the answer is yes but only if realists develop their ideas to suit the modern world today.Traditional realism has most definitely surpassed, however, following the full failure of the Bush administration, realists will be called upon in order to guide the American foreign policy and restore its pride and glory that took centuries to build. In my essay I reviewed the article Ã¢â¬Å"The Bush Doctrine and the Iraq War: Neoconservatives vs. RealistsÃ¢â¬ by Brian C. Schmidt and Michael C. Williams. I decided to illustrate the main theme at the start of my essay and explained why I thought it was important that these ideas were published.I followed by explaining the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s methodology and described the basic results from their research. I proceeded by declaring the articles strengths and weaknesses, particularly focusing on the writing skills used by Schmidt and Williams. Finally, I reviewed the conclusion. I found t his article particularly interesting and thought provoking. I have always been exposed to the heroic attributes of America because of the propaganda media broadcasted; however, Brian C. Schmidt and Michael C. Williams illustrate a quite unbiased view of the nation and the possible future implications of the U. S foreign policy.
Sunday, January 5, 2020
The Souls of Black Folk by W.E.B Dubois The Souls of Black Folk by W.E.B Dubois is a influential work in African American literature and is an American classic. In this book Dubois proposes that the problem of the Twentieth Century is the problem of the color-line. His concepts of life behind the veil of race and the resulting double-consciousness, this sense of always looking at ones self through the eyes of others, have become touchstones for thinking about race in America. In addition to these lasting concepts, Souls offers an evaluation of the progress of the races and the possibilities for future progress as the nation entered the twentieth century. The Souls of Black Folk, is a collection of autobiographical andÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Washingtons acceptance of segregation and his emphasis on material progress represent an old attitude of adjustment and submission. Du Bois asserts that this policy has damaged African Americans by contributing to the loss of the vote, the loss of civil status, and the loss of aid for institutions of higher education. Du Bois insists that the right to vote, civic equality, and the education of youth according to ability are essential for African American progress. Du Bois relates his experiences as a schoolteacher in rural Tennessee, and then he turns his attention to a critique of American materialism in the rising city of Atlanta where the single-minded attention to gaining wealth threatens to replace all other considerations. In terms of education, African Americans should not be taught merely to earn money. Rather, Du Bois argues there should be a balance between the standards of lower training and the standards of human culture and lofty ideals of life. In effect, the African American college should train the Talented Tenth who can in turn contribute to lower education and also act as liaisons in improving race relations. Du Bois returns to an examination of rural African American life with a presentation of Dougherty County, Georgia as representative of life in the Southern Black Belt. He presents the history and current conditions of the county. Cotton is still the life-blood of the Black BeltShow MoreRelated W.E.B. DuBois The Souls of Black Folk Essay674 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesW.E.B. DuBois The Souls of Black Folk W.E.B. DuBois, in The Souls of Black Folk describes the very poignant image of a veil between the blacks and the whites in his society. He constructs the concept of a double-consciousness, wherein a black person has two identities as two completely separate individuals, in order to demonstrate the fallacy of these opinions. J.S. 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